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Will Hybrid Cloud Replace the Public & Private Clouds?

Will Hybrid Cloud Replace the Public & Private Clouds?

Nowadays, cloud computing is nothing new. The “cloud” changes our lives in many ways through accessing, analyzing, storing and sharing information. There are several kinds of “cloud” for use. They are public cloud, private cloud and hybrid cloud. But which one is the best and which one is right for you?

Public Cloud vs Private Cloud

When the services are rendered over a network that is open for public use, we call it a “public cloud”. Public cloud services may be free or offered on a pay-per-usage model. A private cloud is a particular model of cloud computing that involves a distinct and secure cloud based environment in which only the specified client can operate. Technically, there may be little or no difference between public and private cloud architecture, however, security consideration may be substantially different for services (applications, storage, and other resources). The following picture shows the difference between public cloud and private cloud from four respects.

Private-Cloud vs public cloud

Hybrid Cloud

According the the definition, hybrid cloud is a composition of two or more clouds that remain distinct entities but are bound together, offering the benefits of multiple deployment models. Hybrid cloud can also mean the ability to connect collocation, managed and/or dedicated services with cloud resources. There are some challenges that need to be considered during the planning and design phase of hybrid cloud. The biggest challenge is the integration of the different cloud services and technologies. Though there still too much challenges to hybrid cloud, the future of hybrid cloud seems to be bright and we have a lot to look forward to. In fact, hybrid cloud is slated to be the ultimate end-state for the enterprise as it provides maximum benefits for minimal costs, and can be integrated with current cloud environments used by businesses.

hybrid cloud

Depending on the type of data you’re working with, you can choose public cloud, private cloud, or hybrid clouds in terms of the different levels of security and management required. But when it comes to the cloud, a hybrid cloud may be the best as it provides the most stable foundation for the future.

Essay about Submarine Cables System

Essay about Submarine Cables System

Recently, I have read some pictures about the submarine cables item and I found that it is really a great work. To me, I even can’t imagine that people can do such great and difficult work under the ocean in many years ago. I have to say that wisdom of human is endless. That pricked my interest in the history of submarine cables system and I just kept wondering how submarine cables had been made, laid, operated and repaired. To resolve my confusion, I find some articles about this topic or the history records to read. It really shocked me and I can’t wait to write something to share to you.

The first-ever cable had been laid between England and France in 1850, a mere 20 miles. The quality of the materials used to make the first cables was inconsistent, their theory of operation was unwritten, and the transmitting and receiving instruments were primitive. Yet only a few years after that first cable, financiers and engineers were plotting a route across the Atlantic from Ireland to Newfoundland, a run one hundred times longer than that first cable to Europe. Just four years later, in 1858, the project achieved its first success, the first Atlantic cable had been laid.

For underwater use, an insulator was needed. People found that gutta percha, the rubber-like sap of a tree found only in the British Empire and introduced to Britain a few years earlier, was the perfect material. The early submarine cables are made of copper core. With the technology development, fiber optic cables are widely used due to their highly performance. The world’s first trial of a submarine fibre-optic cable was in Loch Fyne in 1979.

cable histroy

The laying of long submarine cables is an expensive and difficult operation. Many people will have a question as me: “Do submarine cables sink to the bottom of the ocean?” The answer is that unless it rested on the bottom all the way across its span, it would only be a matter of a very short time before it would be chafed through and communication interrupted. Firstly, route survey is a very important step. Custom-built cable ships are important tools to lay submarine cables. They have been used since 1874. These highly specialized vessels are instantly recognizable by the cable sheaves at the bow and/or stern, over which the cable descends to the depths, and the elaborate machinery used to control the paying out of the cable. One of the famous cable ships at that time is the Great Eastern, the largest ship ever built at the time, was used for the Atlantic cables of 1865 and future years.
sumary of cable system

In addition, plough is another important tool to deploy cables undersea. As a cable approaches the seabed, the plough inserts the cable into a narrow furrow. And there are different plough designs available to suit various bottom conditions. Certainly, there are many factors and technical method to lay the submarine cables, I’ll skip the introduction. If you are interested in, you can have a reseach about this topic.
submarine cable laying

Apart from the technique of submarine cables system, the nature effects are taken attention by human. Typhoons and tsunamis, sharks and other undersea benthos all influence the submarine cables to transmit data. What’s worse, submarine cables steal case frequently happens in some area. In my opinion, undersea fiber optic cables now connect most of the world’s people. Lying on ocean floors, these submarine cable systems carry the vast majority of our international communications and data. Together, they form the backbone for the data centers powering the world wide web. Such a great work, why not protect it?

sharkcable

Due to there are many technical papers about the submarine cables system, I will stop here for my shallow understanding. But I really want to thanks those people who are devoted to the undersea communication system construction. Thanks to them, we are now using our mobile phone, computer, TV or other devices to enjoy the highly speed broadband or receive data.

FiberStore Provides a Complete Range of SFP+ Transceivers

FiberStore Provides a Complete Range of SFP+ Transceivers

FiberStore provides various kinds of optical communication products which are compliant with standards including Fast Ethernet (FE), Gigabit Ethernet (GE), 10 Gigabit Ethernet (10GbE), Fibre Channel (FC), SONET/SDH and WDM and operate at data rates from 100M to 100G for data-center, HPC (High-Performance Computing), access, metro-regional, wireless, and long haul net-works. They feature outstanding performance over extended voltage and temperature ranges, while minimizing jitter, elzectromagnetic interference (EMI) and power dissipation. For example, the SFP+ transceiver is one of them.

SFP+ (enhanced small form-factor pluggable) is a standardized form factor for fiber optic transceivers and is used in datacom and telecom optical links, offering a smaller footprint and lower power consumption than XFP transceivers for 10G applications. SFP+ transceivers are designed to be hot-swappable in industry-standard cages andconnectors, and offer high-speed performance in a compact package. As known that SFP was the first standardized form factor in this family, and has been used for data rates up to 4G. Then, with the need forcompact transceivers at high data rates, an enhanced version named SFP+ was developed for applications up to 10G and beyond. SFP+ transceivers are interchangeable with SFP transceivers and can be used in the same cages as SFP transceivers because of their same shape as SFP modules. What’s more, the electrical interface to the host board for SFP and SFP+ modules is a serial interface.

DATACOM NETWORK EXAMPLE

SFP+ transceivers’ initial standard applications focused on 8G FC, 10GbE and 10G FC, where the electrical interface to the host board is a standardized serial interface called SFI. Then, the applications have expanded to include SONET OC-192, SDH STM-64, OTN G.709, CPRI wireless, 16G FC, and the emerging 32G FC application.

TELECOM NETWORK EXAMPLE

SFP+ comes in 4 different versions: SR, LR, ER and ZR. Apart from the regular 10G SFP+ transceivers, FiberStore also provides the whole CWDM/DWDM spectrum for 10G SFP+. The SFP+ is also available as a BIDI optic, which has only one LC plus and will work on one single strand of single-mode fiber (SMF). SFP+ modules come with digital diagnostics monitoring (DDM) functions, which provide network managers with a highly accurate, cost-effective tool for implementing reliable performance monitoring. Let’s talk about the kinds of our SFP+ transceivers.

FIBERSTORE SFP-10G-LR 1

According to the brands, our SFP+ transceivers are divided into two big parts: compatible SFP+ and custom SFP+. FiberStore manufactures a complete range of compatible SFP+ transceivers, such as SFP+ SR, SFP+ LR, SFP+ LRM, SFP+ ER, SFP+ ZR, CWDM SFP+, DWDM SFP+, BiDi SFP+, and compatible Cisco SFP+, HP SFP+, Juniper SFP+, Netgear SFP+ etc.. The custom SFP+ transceivers can be any type up to the customers’ requirements and own the brand labeling of FiberStore.

According the different parameters and applications, our SFP+ transceivers include regular 10G SFP+, 8G SFP+, CWDM SFP+, DWDM SFP+, BIDI SFP+, 16G SFP+, Dual-Rate 1/10G SFP+ and SDH/SONET SFP+. Here are some features of them.

Regular 10G SFP+
Regular 10G SFP+ transceivers are multi-purpose optical modules for 10G data transmission applications at 850nm, 1310nm and 1550nm. The transfer distances include 220 m, 300 m, 2 km, 10 km, 20 km, 40 km, 80 km and 100 km. And there are both multi-mode and single-mode versions.

Features:

  • Operating data rate up to 10.3 Gbps
  • 850nm/1310nm/1550nm VCSEL Transmitter
  • Average Output Power: -6 ~ -1 dBm
  • Receiver Sensitivity: -11.1 dBm
  • Distance up to 220 m ~ 100 km (MMF or SMF)
  • Single 3.3V Power supply and TTL Logic Interface
  • Duplex LC Connector Interface, Hot Pluggable
  • Compliant with MSA SFP+ Specification SFF-8431
  • Compliant with IEEE 802.3ae 10GBASE
  • Power Dissipation < 1.0 W
  • Dispersion tolerance up to 40 ps/nm over G.651
  • Built-in Digital Diagnostic Function

8G SFP+
8G SFP+ transceivers are designed for the 8G FC optical data communications. These modules meet the requirements of the IEEE 802.3 GE standard and ANSI FC specifications, and are suitable for interconnections in GE and FC environments. Digital diagnostic functions are available via an I2C series bus specified in the SFP MSA SFF-8472.

Features:

  • Operating data rate up to 8.5 Gbps
  • 1310nm DFB-LD Transmitter
  • Average output power: -8 to 0 dBm
  • Receiver sensitivity: -15 dBm
  • Distance up to: 300m to 80 km
  • Single 3.3V power supply and TTL logic interface
  • Duplex LC connector interface, Hot-pluggable
  • Compliant with MSA SFP+ specification SFF-8431
  • Compliant with 8.5G FC-PI-4 800-SM-LC-L FC standard
  • Built-in digital diagnostic function

CWDM SFP+
CWDM SFP+ transceivers are designed for bi-directional (BIDI) serial optical data communications such as IEEE 802.3ae 10GBASE-LR/LW/ER. CWDM 10G SFP+ transceiver is with the SFP 20-pin connector to allow hot plug capability. Digital diagnostic functions are available via an I2C. CWDM 10Gig SFP+ module is designed for single mode fiber and operates at a nominal wavelength of CWDM wavelength. Our CWDM SFP+ transceivers are 18 center wavelengths available from 1270 nm to 1610 nm, with each step 20 nm. A guaranteed minimum optical link budget of 14 dB is offered.

Features:

  • Operating data rate up to: 9.95 Gbps to 11.1 Gbps
  • Hot-Pluggable SFP+ footprint
  • Average output power: -5 to 0 dBm
  • Receiver sensitivity: -15 dBm
  • 18 wavelength CWDM DFB transmitter from 1270nm to 1610nm, with step 20nm
  • 10 dB power budget at least
  • Duplex LC connector
  • Power dissipation < 1.2 W
  • Compliant with SFP+ MSA specification SFF-8431
  • Build-in digital diagnostic functions
  • Compliant with SFF-8472 MSA
  • Case operation temperature range 0 ℃ to 70 ℃

DWDM SFP+
DWDM SFP+ transceivers are specifically designed for carriers and large enterprises that require a scalable, flexible, cost-effective system for multiplexing, transporting and protecting high-speed data, storage, voice and video applications in point-to-point, add/drop, ring, mesh and star network topologies. As the DWDM technology enables service providers to accommodate many hundreds of aggregated services of any sub-rate protocol without installing additional dark fiber, DWDM SFP+ transceiver is therefore the choice for the highest-bandwidth applications, such as 10GbE, 4G FC, 40G and 100G in the future.

Features:

  • Available in all C-Band wavelengths on the 100GHz/50GHz DWDM ITU Grid
  • Temperature-stabilized DWDM EML transmitter
  • Duplex LC connector
  • Power dissipation: < 1.5 W
  • Dispersion tolerance from -300 ps/nm to 800 ps/nm
  • Hot-pluggable SFP+ footprint
  • Compliant with SFF-8431 MSA
  • Compliant with SFF-8432 MSA
  • Operating case temperature standard : 0 ℃ to 70 ℃
  • Built-in digital diagnostic function
  • Average output power: -1 to 4 dBm
  • Receiver sensitivity: -15 dBm

BIDI SFP+
BiDi SFP+ are designed for bi-directional 10G serial optical data communications such as IEEE 802.3ae 10GBASE-BX by using 1330(1270)nm transmitter and 1270(1330)nm receiver. The transceiver consists of two sections: The transmitter section uses a multiple quantum well 1330(1270) nm DFB laser and is a class 1 laser compliant according to International Safety Standard IEC 60825. The receiver section uses an integrated 1270(1330) nm detector preamplifier (IDP) mounted in an optical header and a limit. Our BIDI SFP+ modules are fully compatible with original products, and are available in various distances from 10Km up to 60Km.

Features:

  • Operating data rate up to 10.3 Gbps
  • 1270nm/1330nm DFB Transmitter/Receiver
  • Power budget 9 dB at least
  • Single 3.3V power supply and TTL logic interface
  • LC connector interface
  • Hot-pluggable
  • Power dissipation: < 1.5 W
  • Operating case temperature standard : 0 ℃ to 70 ℃
  • Average output power: -5 to 0 dBm
  • Receiver sensitivity: -14 dBm
  • Compliant with SFP+ MSA specification SFF-8431
  • Compliant with IEEE 802.3ae 10GBASE-LR
  • Compliant with IEEE 802.3ae 10GBASE-LW
  • Built-in digital diagnostic function

16G SFP+
16G SFP+ are designed for the 16G FC optical data communications. This FC transceiver solution supports high-speed serial links over multimode optical fiber at signaling rates up to 14.025 Gbps. Using the 2-wire serial interface defined in the SFF-8472 MSA, the 16G FC transceivers provide real-time temperature, supply voltage, laser bias current, laser average output power and received input power. Compliant with SFP MSA mechanical and electrical specifications for LC Duplex transceivers, ANSI FC transceivers can be also used for FC-PI-5 and FC-PI-2 gigabit applications.

Features:

  • Distance up to: 125 m to 10km at 850nm/1310nm transmitter
  • Compliant to RoHS directive
  • Diagnostic features per SFF-8472
  • Real time monitoring of: Transmitted/Received optical power; Laser bias current; Temperature; Supply voltage
  • SFP Plus Mechanical form factor
  • Wide temperature and supply voltage operation (0 ℃ to 70 ℃) (3.3 V ± 5%)
  • Transceiver specifications per SFP (SFF-8074i) MSA and SFF-8472 (revision 10.0)
  • 14.025 Gbps FC operation for FC-PI-5 1600 M5E-SN-I, FC-PI-5 1600-M5E-SN-I, FC-PI-5 1600 M5F-SN-I
  • 8.5 Gbps FC operation for FC-PI-4 800-M5-SN-S, 800-M6-SN-S and 800-M5E-SN-I
  • 4.25 Gbps FC operation for FC-PI400-M5-SN-I , 400-M6-SN-I and 400 M5E-SN-I
  • LC duplex optical connector interface conforming to ANSI TIA/EIA604-10 (FOCIS 10A)
  • IEC 60825-1 Class 1/CDRH Class 1 laser eye safe
  • Enhanced EMI performance for high port density applications

Dual-Rate 1/10G SFP+
Dual-rate 1/10G SFP+ transceivers are designed for use in GE and 10GbE links over SM or MM fiber. They are compliant with SFF-8431, IEEE 802.3-2005 10GBASE-SR/SW, 10GBASE-LR and 1000BASE-SX, 1000BASE-LX. Digital diagnostics functions are available via a 2-wire serial interface, as specified in SFF-8472. Host board designers should follow the IC manufacturer’s recommended settings for interoperability with an SFP+ limiting module. This product is for applications specifically designed for 10G SFP+ ports and 1G/10G SFP+ ports and not native 1G SFP ports.

Features:

  • Hot-pluggable SFP+ footprint
  • Supports rate selectable 1.25 Gbps, 9.95 Gbps and 10.3 Gbps
  • Power dissipation: < 1 W
  • RoHS-6 compliant (lead-free)
  • Commercial temperature range: 0 ℃ to 70 ℃
  • Single 3.3Vpower supply
  • Uncooled 850nm/1310nm VCSEL laser
  • Duplex LC connector
  • Built-in digital diagnostic functions

SDH/SONET SFP+
SDH/SONET SFP+ transceiver is a high performance, cost effective module for serial optical data communications applications specified for signal rates of 9.95 Gbps to 11.3 Gbps. These modules are designed for single mode fiber and operates at a nominal wavelength of 850/1310/1550 nm. The transmitter section incorporates uncooled directly modulated 1310nm distributed feedback laser (DFB) or EML colled laser 1550nm. The receiver section uses PIN photodetector for low dark current and excellent responsivity or APD high sensetivity receiver.

Features:

  • Supports 9.95 Gbps to 11.3 Gbps
  • Average output power: -6 to -1 dBm
  • Receiver Sensitivity: -14.4 dBm
  • SFP 10G with CDR both at TX and RX side
  • IEC 60825-1 Class 1/CDRH Class 1 laser eye safety
  • Hot-pluggable SFP+ footprint
  • 10 km at 1310nm DFB/PIN transmitter
  • Duplex LC connector
  • Low power dissipation
  • Superior Thermal and EMI integrity performance to support high port densities
  • LC duplex optical connector interface conforming to ANSI TIA/EIA604-10 (FOCIS 10)
  • Built-in digital diagnostic functions, DDMI
  • RoHS-6, CE, FDA, FCC, TUV, UL certifactes

Fiberstore SFP Plus Transceiver Modules Are On Sale Now

Fiberstore SFP Plus Transceiver Modules Are On Sale Now

fiberstore-sfp-plusFiberstore has been supplying optical transceivers since years ago. The SFP plus transceiver modules are on sale recently and almost all the transceiver modules are much cheap then before.

SFP plus, or SFP+, is the upgraded version of the previous SFP module with higher data rate and new industrial standards. It is small compared to any of the currently shipping form factors and provides the best density per line card.

SFP+ offers customers both immediate benefits and long-term advantages in supporting evolving data center needs. The SFP+ specification was initially published on May 9, 2006, and version 4.1 was published on July 6, 2009. It’s a international industry format supported by many network component vendors.

SFP+ is an innovative, next-generation transceiver module. Initially, it’s targeted to support speeds of 10 Gbps for next-generation Gigabit Ethernet applications (10G SFP) and eight.5Gbps Fiber Channel systems. What is more, SFP+ is by using lower power consumption for under 1W which is even economical. These transceivers are with managed digital optical monitoring and superior high temperature performance.

Several industrial acknowledged standards for SFP+ has been released for 10Gpbs networks, including 10Gbase-SR, which define the SFP+ transceiver working with OM3 10G multimode fiber at 30 to 300 meters range, 10Gbase-LR which define the SFP+ transceiver dealing with single mode fiber at 10km range, 10Gbase-LRM which define the FDDI multimode fiber at around 220 meters range. These 3 versions of SFP+ are generally called SFP-10G-SR, SFP-10G-LR and SFP-10G-LRM for brief in Cisco SFP+ series. Click to buy Cisco SFP-10G-SR from Fiberstore.

In comparison to earlier XENPAK or XFP modules, SFP+ module is by using more compact size compared with the former 10G transceivers such as X2 and XENPAK, leaving more circuitry to become implemented around the host board rather than inside the module. SFP+ manily has three advantages. First, it has a more compact form factor package than X2 and XFP. Second, it can connect with exactly the same data rate of XFP, X2 And XENPAK directly. Third, the cost of SFP+ is lower than XFP, X2 And XENPAK.

SFP+ transceiver is interchangeable with SFP transceiver and can be used in exactly the same cages as SFP transceiver. For 10G applications, SFP+ transceiver includes a smaller footprint minimizing power consumption than XFP transceiver. The electrical interface towards the host board for SFP transceiver and SFP+ transceiver is the same serial.

Many companies, such as Cisco, have released SFP+ transceivers. SFP+ ensures the 10Gbps data transmission and the most densely installation capability as well as the lowest cost. Currently it is well known as the best option for the 10Gbps fiber optic transceivers. Included in this, Cisco SFP+ transceiver may be the mainstream market. Cisco 10Gbase SFP transceivers are used for high speed 10Gigabit Ethernet, linking the gear to fiber optic networks. Cisco SFP+ products include active SFP+ cables and SFP+ transceivers. There is also copper transceiver offered by Cisco.

Tips: the Cisco SFP transceivers mentioned in this article are Cisco compatible SFP plus transceivers which are manufactured by FiberStore.

Forget Terabit networks; new multicore fibers could signal the Petabit age

Forget Terabit networks; new multicore fibers could signal the Petabit age

Some interesting experiments in fiber optics could dramatically improve the data rates of our backbone internet networks. Researchers at the University of Bristol in the U.K. and the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) in Japan said on Tuesday that they have successfully demonstrated a multicore fiber network controlled via software-defined networking (SDN).

Fiber strands today are essentially single tubes of glass, or cores, that carry visible light between nodes. Multicore fiber is exactly what its name implies: multiple cores each carrying a single core’s worth of capacity over the same link. By interleaving as many cores in rings, optical researchers have been able to build some truly powerful test networks.

In Japan, a group led by NTT recently built a 450 km (280 mile) section of fiber using 12 cores in two rings capable of transmitting 409 Tb/s in either direction. That’s 818 Tb/s in total – within spitting distance of seemingly mythical Petabit speeds. What the Bristol-NICT group has accomplished is creating a software-based control element that can manage those enormous capacities.

As my colleague Stacey Higginbotham wrote last year, fiber networks are becoming programmable, allowing carriers to adjust the capacity and latency to meet the needs of traffic traveling over it. Using OpenFlow protocols, the Bristol-NICT group was able to configure the nodes of the network to support different types of applications. According to the researchers, this was the first use of SDN on a multicore network and could eventually be used for global cloud computing.

Click for more about multicore fiber patch cable, OM3 fiber optic cable, and MTP fiber.

Source from Gigaom