Optical Transceiver Module Tutorial From Fiberstore

What is an Optical Transceiver module?

Optical Transceiver is a computer chip that uses fiber optic technology to communicate between other devices. This is opposed to a chip that transfers information electrically through metal wires and circuits or by the process of using various wave forms to communicate data. An optical transceiver chip is an integrated circuit (IC) that transmits and receives data using optical fiber rather than electrical wire.

Optical transceivers are typically used to create high bandwidth links between network switches. With the optical transceiver you can also create data transmission links capable of long range transmission.

Development of Optical Transceiver Modules

Optical transceivers play an important role in conveying information across communication channels for Ethernet systems. They act as the all-in-one objects that receive and convey inforamtion, similar to those found in radios and telephone systems. With an optical transceiver, networks save much more space and avoid the need of having a transmitter and receiver apart inside a network. Capable of transmitting information further and faster than older models, the newer transceivers continue to change the way transceivers are used and appear, making for smaller, more compact modules than before. Here is a simple development of the transceivers.

Earliest Modules
SFP Module is one of the earliest transceiver devices which were created for Gigabit Ethernet networks and were preferred for their hot-swappable abilities. GBIC, or Gigabit interface Converters, allowed networks the ability to transmit data across copper or fiber-optic channels, creating a more versatile device than transmitters and receivers. Of course, GBIC modules were also have defect, and many had size and compatibility issues that limited their ability to transmit data across particular distances and at certain wavelengths.

XENPAK Modules
XENPAK became the new standard transceiver with increased support across longer distances and for multiple wavelengths. Unlike GBIC transceivers that sent information across either copper or fiber optic channels, XENPAKs included support for both networks, creating a better, more flexible module. And unlike the bigger GBIC transceivers, XENPAKs were capable of conveying data across short and long distances due to their configuration settings located inside the devices. When utilizing a single-mode configuration, networks create a single ray of light to send data across a long distance, while they use a multimode setup to transmit information across short distances. Both single and multimode fiber optics were utilized by networks, creating the XENPAK device ideal.

10 Gigabit Ethernet
X2 Transceiver and XPAK that the older XENPAK modules could no longer keep up with, were made when the 10 Gigabit Ethernet standard took hold. The smaller, more flexible X2 and XPAK standards allowed for even more support for the different Ethernet standards and were capable of transmitting data across longer distances.

And when the 10G SFP (SFP Plus or SFP+) came into existence, the competing standards of X2 and XPAK couldn’t continue to control the market as they once had any more. SFP+ modules allowed for more configuration standards for networks, providing various wavelength and distance configurations for Ethernet.

Principle of Optical Transceiver Modules

Optical transceiver generally includes both a transmitter and a receiver in a single module. The transmitter and receiver are arranged in parallel so that they can operate independently of each other. Both the receiver and the transmitter have their own circuitry so that they can handle transmissions in both directions. The transmitter takes an electrical input and converts it to an optical output from a laser diode or LED. The light from the transmitter is coupled into the fiber with a connector and is transmitted through the fiber optic cable plant. The light from the end of the fiber is coupled to a receiver where a detector converts the light into an electrical signal which is then conditioned properly for use by the receiving equipment.

In a word, the optical transceiver module is the role of the photoelectric conversion. The transmitter converts electrical signals into light signals, and through the fiber optic transmission, the receiving end of the optical signals are converted into electric signals.

How Optical Transceivers Work In Personal Computers

When there is an issue, the pieces that make up the personal computers could be a mystery for many people. Without having an established understanding, we can feel helpless and incapable of fixing even the most basic of problems on ourself. So, it’s necessary to make clear that how the transceivers work in the computers.

Considering that many of us are constantly on the internet, it may be easy to get an understanding of the most basic optical transceivers and how they make it so you can connect an search the internet with ease. To provide you with a straight connection to the web, you are either connected through a wireless network, or to an Ethernet cable which is connected to your modem or router when you are online. The Cat5 cable as it is also known, plugs into the computer by using the optical transceiver, which is often not housed on the side of your laptop, or the reverse end of the CPU.

There are many various modules that can be utilized as your optical transceiver. Unlike XFP modules, Cisco SFP modules, GigaBit interface converters, or GBIC modules, are some of your more average transceivers, and are input/output modules with one end that plugs into a gigabit ethernet port, while the opposing side is plugged into the fiber patch cables and links the fiber optic networks. Allowing the devices to process the data accordingly, the base function of the GBIC module is to communicate the signals between the Ethernet network and fiber optic network. One terrific aspect of the GBIC module is that it’s a hot pluggable, allotting for a port to be changed from one kind of external interface to another by simply plugging the module in to an alternate external interface without having to power down the host switch or router in the process.

Application of Optical Transceiver Modules

Optical transceiver, essentially just completed the converted of data between different media, can realize the connection between two switches or computers in the 0-120km distance. Its main function is to achieve the conversion between optical-electrical and electrical-optical, including optical power control, modulation transmission, signal detection, IV conversion and limiting amplifier decision regeneration. In addition, there are security information query, TX-disable and other functions. Here is a summary in the practical application.

1. Optical transceivers can realize the interconnection between switches.

2. Optical transceivers can realize the interconnection between the switch and the computer.

3. Optical transceivers can realize the interconnection between computers.

4. Optical transceivers can act as the transmission repeater.
When the actual transfer distance exceeds the nominal transmission distance of the transceiver, in particular, the actual transfer distance exceeds 120km alerts, with 2 sets transceiver back to back in the case of on-site conditions allow, repeaters or the use of “optical-optical” conversiona relay, is a very cost-effective solution.

5. Optical transceivers can offer conversion between single-mode and multimode fiber connection.
When the networks appear to need a single multimode fiber connection, you can use a multimode transceiver and a single-mode transceiver back-to-back connections, which can solve the problem of single multimode fiber converted.

6. Optical transceivers can offer WDM transmission.
The lack of resources of long-distance fiber optic cable, in order to improve the utilization rate of the fiber optic cable, and reduce the cost, transceiver and wavelength division multiplexer (WDM multiplexer) with the use of two-way information on the same fiber transmission.

Classification of Optical Transceiver Modules

Optical Transceiver modules can be classified according to the following aspects.

1. Optical Fiber Type
Single-mode fiber transceiver and Multimode fiber transceiver. The single-mode version has a transmission distance of 20 to 120 km, while the multimode one’s is 2 to 5 km. Due to the different transmission distance, the transceivers’ transmit power, receiver sensitivity and the use of wavelength will be different.

2. Optical Fiber Count
Simplex fiber transceiver and Duplex fiber transceiver. The simplex version receives the data sent in a single fiber transmission, While the duplex one receives data transmitted on a dual fiber transmission. By definition, single fiber devices can save half of the fiber, a fiber that is in the receive and transmit data, where the fiber is very applicable to resource constraints. These products use the wavelength division multiplexing techniques, mostly using the wavelength 1310nm and 1550nm.

3. Transmission Rate
Transmission rate refers to the number of gigabits transmitted per second, per unit of Mbps or Gbps. Optical modules cover the following main rate: low rates, Fast, Gigabit, 1.25G, 2.5G, 4.25G, 4.9G, 6G, 8G, 10G and 40G.

4. Package
SFP, SFP+, GBIC, XFP, XENPAK, X2, 1X9, SFF, 200/3000pin, XPAK
, etc.

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