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Category: Fiber Optic Connectors & Adapters

Small Form Factor Fiber Optic Connectors

Small Form Factor Fiber Optic Connectors

Since the 1990s, many small form factor (SFF) fiber optic connectors have been developed to fill the interest in devices that may fit into tight spaces and permit denser packing of connections such as fiber patch cables. Some are miniaturized versions of older connectors, built around a 1.25mm ferrule rather than the 2.5mm ferrule used in ST, SC and FC connectors. Others are based on smaller versions of MT-type ferrule for multi fiber connections, or other brand new designs.

Most of these SFF connectors have a push-and-latch design that adapts easily to duplex connectors. LC, MU, E2000 and MT-RJ would be the most typical small form factor fiber optic connectors.

FiberStore LC Connector1. LC Connector
LC is short for Lucent Connector, licensed by Lucent. LC connector may also be called “Little Connector”. It resembles a typical RJ45 telephone jack externally, while a miniature version of the SC connector internally. LC connector uses a 1.25mm ceramic (zirconia) ferrule instead of the 2.5mm ferrule and add a push-and-latch design providing pull-proof stability in system rack mounts. LC connectors are highly favored for single mode applications such as high-density connections, SFP transceivers, XFP transceivers, etc.. Generally, LC connectors can be found in simplex and duplex, single mode and multimode versions.

FiberStore MU Connector2. MU Connector
MU is brief for Miniature Unit, produced by NTT. MU connector is known as “mini SC” and is popular in Japan. It has push-pull mechanism, utilizing a 1.25mm ferrule the same as LC connector. MU connectors’ applications include high-speed data communications, voice networks, telecommunications, and dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM). They’re also utilized in multiple optical connections so that as a self-retentive mechanism in backplane applications. MU connectors can be found in simplex and duplex versions.

FiberStore E2000 Connector3. E2000 Connector
E2000, as known as laser shock hardening (LSH), is a technology generally used in Telecom, DWDM systems. E2000 connector is also called LX.5 connector. It looks like a miniature SC connector externally, like the MU connector utilizing a 1.25mm ferrule. You can easily install, with a snap-in and push-pull latching mechanism which clicks when fully inserted. E2000 connector includes a spring-loaded shutter which fully protects the ferrule from dust and scratches. The shutter closes automatically once the connector is disengaged, locking out impurities which could later result in network failure, and locking in possibly damaging lasers. When it’s connected to the adapter the shutter opens automatically. E2000 connectors are available in single mode and multimode versions. FiberStore provides both E2000 to ST fiber patch cable and fibre optic patch cables E2000 LC rich in quality and best price.

FiberStore MT-RJ Connector 14. MT-RJ Connector
MT-RJ is short for Mechanical Transfer Registered Jack. MT-RJ connector’s overall dimensions are comparable like a RJ45 connector. MT-RJ connector dose not make use of a 1.25mm ferrule, and it is design is derived from MT ferrule. It features a miniature two-fiber ferrule with two guide pins parallel to the fibers on the outside. The guides pins align ferrules precisely when mating two MT-RJ connectors. MT-RJ connectors are designed with male-female polarity which means male MT-RJ connector has two guide pins and feminine MT-RJ connector has two holes instead. MT-RJ connectors are utilized in intra building communication systems. Since they are designed as plugs and jacks, like RJ-45 telephone connectors, adapters can be used with a few designs, but are not required for all. MT-RJ connectors are available in duplex version only and multimode version only given that they use the two-fiber ferrules.FiberStore MT-RJ Connector 2

Fiber Optic Connector Assembling – Ferrule

Fiber Optic Connector Assembling – Ferrule

Most popular fibre optic connectors being used today possess some common elements. The most critical part, where the fiber is mounted, is the ferrule. Ferrule can be a long, thin cylinder using the fiber mounted in the center hole. The center hole is sized to match fiber’s cladding diameter which can be usually 125um.

Fiber Connector Ferrules

The ferrule is mounted inside the connector body and therefore the connector body is attached to the fiber optic cable structure. Finally, a strain-relief rubber boot protects the connector-cable junction. Its job is always to center and align the fiber and protect it from mechanical damage. No more fiber reaches no more the ferrule, where the fiber end is polished smooth either flat or using a curvature. Fiber connector ferrules are made from several kinds of materials including ceramic(Zirconia), stainless steel and plastic.

Unlike most electronic connectors, fiber optic connectors normally do not have the male-female polarity. Most fiber connectors are male only. Instead, fiber connectors mate together in fiber adapters, which are often called mating sleeves or coupling receptacles. Fiber optic adapters used to mate different connector types, such as a FC connector to some SC connector are known as hybrid adapters, plus a bare fiber adapter will be the medium to link the bare fiber to fiber optic equipment.

Although this approach necessitates the use of separate adapters, it otherwise reduces fiber connector inventory requirements since you now need to stock one type of connector only. An additional is that fiber adapters could be made to mate one kind of connector to another, which is a big plus when compared with electronic connectors.

The fiber’s plastic coating is stripped first prior to the fiber is inserted in the ferrule. The middle hole with the ferrule is big enough to match the fiber cladding (that is usually 125um after fiber coating stripped off) but tight enough to keep the fiber in a fixed position without any further moving.

Standard bore diameters are 126 1/-0 um for single mode connectors and 127 2/-0 um for multimode connectors. As a result of fiber cladding diameter’s variation from manufacturing, some fiber connector manufacturers also supply a selection of ferrule bore sizes for example 124um, 125um, 126um and 127um.

Fiber optic epoxy or adhesive is injected in to the ferrule hole ahead of the fiber is pushed directly into hold the fiber in place. The epoxy or adhesive is then cured rich in temperature oven based on adhesive manufacturers’ instruction. Finally the fiber end is polished to some smooth face on polishing films.

The ferrule is then slipped inside another hollow cylinder before it is mounted inside the connector body. The connector body includes more than one pieces that are assembled to carry the cable and fiber in place. Connector person is made of metal or plastic.

The ferrule end protrudes beyond the connector body so that it can slip into the mating sleeves (fiber adapters). A stain-relief rubber boot is finally slipped within the cable end from the connector to protect the cable-connector junction point.

In fiber optic cross connect boxes or fiber patch panels, a range of connector adpators are mounted inside, ready so that you can plug a port fiber cable in a single side as well as an output cable in the other. Fiber connector adapters may also be mounted in wall outlets, just like standard phone jacket.

Optical Fiber Connector Q & A

Optical Fiber Connector Q & A

Q: What is optical fiber connector?
A: Optical fiber connector is used to join optical fibers where a connect/disconnect capability is required. The basic connector unit is a connector assembly. A connector assembly consists of an adapter and two connector plugs. Due to the polishing and tuning procedures that may be incorporated into optical connector manufacturing, connectors are generally assembled onto optical fiber in a supplier’s manufacturing facility. However, the assembly and polishing operations involved can be performed in the field, for example, to make cross-connect jumpers to size.

Q: Where are optical fiber connectors used?
A: Optical fiber connector is used in telephone company central offices, at installations on customer premises, and in outside plant applications to connect equipment and cables, or to cross-connect cables within a system.

Q: What is the structure of optical fiber connector?
A: Most optical fiber connectors are spring-loaded. The end faces of the fibers in the two connectors are pressed together, resulting in a direct glass to glass or plastic to plastic contact. This avoids a trapped layer of air between two fibers, which would increase connector insertion loss and reflection loss.

Q: Which parameters do optical fiber connectors have?
A: Every fiber connection has two values: Attenuation or insertion loss; Reflection or return loss. Measurements of these parameters are now defined in IEC standard 61753-1. The standard gives five grades for insertion loss from A (best) to D (worst), and M for multimode. The other parameter is return loss, with grades from 1 (best) to 5 (worst).

Q: What types do optical fiber connectors have?
A: There are many types of optical fiber connectors, including FC, LC, SC, ST, D4, MU, MPO, SMA, MTRJ and E2000 etc.. SC and LC connectors are the most common types on the market. The main differences among them are dimensions and methods of mechanical coupling. Generally, organizations will standardize on one kind of connector, depending on what equipment they commonly use. Different connectors are required for multimode, and for single-mode fibers.

In datacom and telecom applications nowadays small connectors (such as LC connector) and multi-fiber connectors (such as MTP connector) are replacing the traditional connectors (such as SC connector), mainly to provide a higher number of fibers per unit of rack space. (MTP stands for: Multifiber Termination Push-on connector. It is built around the MT ferrule. Each MTP contains 12 fibers or 6 duplex channels in a connector smaller than most duplex connections in use today. It is designed as a high-performance version of the MPO and will interconnect with MPO connectors. MTP connector is manufactured specifically for a multifiber ribbon cable. The single mode version has a angled ferrule allowing for minimal back reflection, whereas the multimode connector ferrule is commonly flat. MTP connector allows high-density connections between network equipment in telecommunication rooms. It uses a simple push-pull latching mechanism for easy and intuitive insertion and removal. The end of MTP connector may be polished flat or at an 8° angle. It is the same size of a SC connector but since it can accommodate a maximum of 12 fibers, it provides up to 12 times the density, thereby offering savings in circuit card and rack space. Click to view MPO fiber price.)

Q: What features does a good optical fiber connector have?
A: Low Insertion Loss; Low Return Loss; Ease of installation; Low cost; Reliability; Low environmental sensitivity; Ease of use.

Q: Where can I buy high cost-effective optical fiber connectors online?
A: FiberStore is the best choice strongly recommended to you.

How To Use Magnifier Inspect Fiber Optic Connector

How To Use Magnifier Inspect Fiber Optic Connector

We can use magnifier to check the fiber optic connectors pin end, which quickly determined that the connector insertion loss is high or low, the need for re-grinding. With this method, you only need a few seconds, you can initially conclude that the connector meets the quality requirements. Than the use of instruments that measure the specific optical connector insertion loss value, and then determine wheter the quality meets the requirements, greatly reducing the time and improve efficiency.

Testing Equipment

Using fiber magnifier to check fiber optic connector pins end, we need at least the following equipment:

1. 200 times or 400 times of fiber optic magnifier(according to the type of fiber connector to check the selection of suitable optical adapter);

2. Pure alcohole and lens paper (hairless soft paper);

3. Light source (we used here instead of incandescent bulbs);

Testing Steps

Check the following steps:

1. Remove the dust cap at the end of the connector to check;
2. Insert the connector in the magnifying glass of the adapter;
3. If you can not see the field of vision magnifier pin end, then adjust the position of magnifier adjustment knob until the pin end graphics all entered the field of vision;
4. Adjust the focal length of the magnifying glass to the right position, making the pin end graphics to clear;
5. Check the pin end, works well for grinding connector. Its face should be round, very smooth, the end of the fiber core is flush with the pin, and showed concentric ring shape; If there is dust (or defects), use lens paper (hairless soft paper) stick of pure alcohol wipe until the surface no dust (or you can see the clear flaws);
6. The other end of the connector to remove the dust cap, and make the end of the pins on the incandescent bulbs, we just checked in the connector end can see the light, otherwise the connector where a fiber optic cable has broken;
7. Repeat the above steps, check again, you will see a very bright core pin end view may find minor flaws;
8. Exchange ends of the connector, repeat the above steps to check the other end;
9. Mark the connector end of the existing problems with the tag, using appropriate methods, or grinding or re-assembled connector, and then repeat the steps above to be checked.

Analysis of test results

The use of a magnifier fiber optic connector for the inspection, we can see that a very good grinding effect fiber connector pin end face should have graphical features, it can have a variety of different types of defects that the end face of the connector graphical features. According to what we see different kinds of graphics, combined with our analysis, we can take the appropriate measures for improvement, in order to ensure the quality of the connector.

Recommended to use at least 200 times (preferably 400 times) of the optical magnifier to be checked. In order to check the accuracy, certainly with and without the use of incandescent bulbs in both cases with a magnifier to check connector end. In both cases the control of the end face of the pattern that can better determine whether defective.

For a good grinding effect connectors, we do not need any additional processing, instrumentatioin can be used directly for subsequent testing. If the connector is more obvious defects (based on experience needed to judge), its loss is likely higher, beyond the acceptable range of technical requipments, we can directly determine the quality problems. But for smaller connectors defective, the loss may be within the required range, then we need to use instrumentation to determine the actual test.

How to determine whether the effect of the connector polishing is “Good”?

If the connector pin end and core are round, smooth, while the fiber core is flush with the pin end, concentricity good, it is “good”, and without blemish.

If one connector looks “bad”, then the center or not circular, or is not smooth, or concentricity deviation is large, or the presence of other defects. For example, if the fiber has partially broken, then its will not be a full circle core.

The most serious situation is that we are under a magnifier to see the clear outline of the core of the phenomenon we call “fragmentation”. More than a brief introduction to how to determine a connector is a “good” or “bad”.

Applications Of Fiber Optic Connectors And Analysis Of Connector Terminals

Applications Of Fiber Optic Connectors And Analysis Of Connector Terminals

In this article we will introduce user fiber optic connector (SC Connector), straight-through fiber optic connector (ST Connector), fixed fiber optic connector (FC Connector) and LC Connector and their applications, performance and termination requirements.

Different from BNC connectors widely used in A / V industry, fiber optic connectors gradually develop with the mature of fiber optic technology. Copper Connector for AV system signal loss effects are generally not large, but different to fiber optic connector, for each interface in the transmission system has a great influence. Let’s have a look at some problems caused by physical connection of fiber optic, fiber optic transmission equipment itself can command connection, but in some cases, most or almost all of the optical transmission connection options are acted by people. The amount of signal loss of fiber optic cable during the transmission is mainly determined by the quality and type of fiber optic cable you used, each connection terminal generates a signal loss. According to the different fiber optic connector head types user select, the total connector terminal signal loss may exceed the amount of signal loss produced by fiber optic cable itself.

Maintain A Normal Operation Of System

In the fiber optical system design, the system works properly, then it reaches very good results. In the system design, we need to consider some unexpected problems, and let the system operates normally. In system design, we have to consider the worst situation may occur, and plan accordingly, and look forward to better operational results. Fiber optic connectors designer must take this philosophy in mind. In system design, security and stability system connections require the connection end smooth and founder. The connection between the client and the client must be precise, accurate and even to reach micron, millionth of a meter. The diameter of commonly used multi-mode fiber optic range from 50-62.5 microns and that of single-mode fiber optic is only 8-9 microns. Compared with diameter of a human hair (17-180 microns), any little mistake can bring catastrophic losses.

Fiber optic connector is seriously strict to the precision of equipments, so connectors must be very clean. Fiber optic connectors and accessories are usually arranged in a sleeve, a finger print or external dust may seriously affect connector’s performance, and even lead to transmission failure. Therefore, when the connector is not connected, it should be kept in a clean protective sleeve.

In connection, we should also be tightly wedged the optical fiber connector, in all current fiber optic connector designs, through the “ring” to carry out, to ensure accurate when paired connectors. Fiber Termination is through viscose or by crimping the ferrule inside the confining, become a permanent component. After the built-in fiber is inserted, put the ferrule end mill smooth for fiber optic connectors provide a smooth interface. The ring is usually composed of hard material such as ceramic, of course, it also can be stainless steel, plastic material or tungsten carbide. The diameter of general rings of SC, ST and FC is 2.5 mm, that of LC is 1.25 mm. As the functional properties of the ring can be produced in accordance with the precision required, becomes the primary characteristic of fiber optical connector. Among the connection rings, the spring-type container connecting ring guarantee coaxially aligned between the fiber and the LED or a laser.

As technology advances and applications expand, fiber optic connectors are also rapid developing. Now there are 12 or more types of fiber optical connectors used in the market, each meets the specific needs and came into being, of course, there are some technical limitations. Now the main market trend towards moderately priced, compact connector model, support new transmission distribution system which requires greater transmission density. As users expect, the continuous development of telecommunication industry also contributed to the large area using of fiber optic, largely due to the various types of communication and entertainment services require more and more fiber optic connectors.

Terminal Consideration

Traditionally, the terminal end of fiber optic is generally slow, the price is higher, the equipment requirements and technical requirements are also very high. In considering the terminal of single-mode fiber-optic cable, there are several factors must took into account. In some cases, we can choose some cables which have already set up terminal according to various types of fiber.

Most Fiber Patch Cables Can Be Classified To The Following Categories

In tailor-mount applications, we can only select a specific terminal, however, using a splice tool, can reduce the length of single-mode fiber to extend the terminal site, reducing the demand number of equipments and the use of technology. For multimode fiber optic cable, the new splice method using a simple optical cutting tool, will be assembled into a pre-designed fiber optic connector / cable. This method is very simple, just a fiber-to-fiber butt joints, the joints are usually uses a special optical gel, so that fiber optic terminals condense each other.